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Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period (1426–35) imperial blue and white vase (明宣德 景德鎮窯青花貫耳瓶, 纽约大都博物馆).
Later, in China, a style of decoration based on sinuous plant forms spreading across the object was perfected and most commonly used.
Blue and white decoration first became widely used in Chinese porcelain in the 14th century, after the cobalt pigment for the blue began to be imported from Persia.
It was widely exported, and inspired imitative wares in Islamic ceramics, and in Japan, and later European tin-glazed earthenware such as Delftware and after the techniques were discovered in the 18th century, European porcelain.
Blue and white pottery in all of these traditions continues to be produced, most of it copying earlier styles.
Blue glazes were first developed by ancient Mesopotamians to imitate lapis lazuli, which was a highly prized stone.
Later, a cobalt blue glaze became popular in Islamic pottery during the Abbasid Caliphate, during which time the cobalt was mined near Kashan, Oman, and Northern Hejaz.In the early 20th century, the development of the classic blue and white Jingdezhen ware porcelain was dated to the early Ming period, but consensus now agrees that these wares began to be made around 1300-1320, and were fully developed by the mid-century, as shown by the David Vases dated 1351, which are cornerstones for this chronology.In the early 14th century, mass-production of fine, translucent, blue and white porcelain started at Jingdezhen, sometimes called the porcelain capital of China.This development was due to the combination of Chinese techniques and Islamic trade.Chinese blue and white porcelain was once-fired: after the porcelain body was dried, decorated with refined cobalt-blue pigment mixed with water and applied using a brush, coated with a clear glaze and fired at high temperature.From the 16th century, local sources of cobalt blue started to be developed, although Persian cobalt remained the most expensive.Production of blue and white wares has continued at Jingdezhen to this day.Blue and white porcelain made at Jingdezhen probably reached the height of its technical excellence during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty (r. The true development of blue and white ware in China started with the first half of the 14th century, when it progressively replaced the century-long tradition of bluish-white ware, or Qingbai.The main production center was in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province.Blue and white ware also began making its appareance in Japan, where it was known as sometsuke.Various forms and decorations were highly influenced by China, but later developed its own forms and styles.